Zoology (Optional) By Dheeraj Sharma :  
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Non-chordates are animals without a notochord – the rod-like elastic structure that supports the body. 

It consists of a small group of worm-like, marine species with an organ-system level of organization. Members of phylum Porifera, Coelenterata, Ctenophora, Platyhelminthes, Aschelminthes, Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Hemichordata fall under Non-chordates.

The general characteristic features of Non-Chordates are : 
  • They are cylindrical, triploblastic, coelomate, or pseudocoelomate animals. 
  • Respiration in these animals takes place through gills, trachea or body surface. 
  • Most of the times, sexes cannot be distinguished among the members. 
  • Modes of reproduction involve sexual and asexual Fertilization is external, though internal fertilization also occurs in some species. 
  • The body of non-chordates generally includes an open type of circulatory system.
Complete Non-Chordata : UPSC-CSE/IAS/IFoS

Complete Notes/Book By Dheeraj Sharma (Non-Chordata) : UPSC-CSE/IAS/IFoS
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Non-Chordata : UPSC-CSE/IAS/IFoS
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